2.5. It is entirely your responsibility to follow all applicable intellectual property and other laws that pertain to your site. You must have express permission to use any person's copyrighted material, whether it be a writing, an image, or any other copyrightable work. We will not be responsible (and you will be solely responsible) if you use another person's copyrighted material or other intellectual property in violation of the law or any third party rights.
In the case of cost per mille/click, the publisher is not concerned about whether a visitor is a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert, because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. This leaves the greater, and, in case of cost per mille, the full risk and loss (if the visitor cannot be converted) to the advertiser.
How crazy your the first to write what I needed at the beginning of my blog research venture. Thus, this is exactly what I have been doing, and funny just the other day I was writing down my cost as I go along. I am new to the blogging community and just started in Jan 2018. I am now on step 10-11ish. The part I am trying to really work on is building an audience, and writing more content so I can bring more people to my site. It is hard work for sure. Good luck!
Thanks a lot Spencer for these affiliate marketing tips. I was looking for some tips on how I can improve myself with affiliate marketing and there your email landed in my mail box and I came across this wonderful piece of information. I am happy that you have suggested linking images with an affiliate link and that’s what I did in my last promotional post on my blog.
In 1994, Tobin launched a beta version of PC Flowers & Gifts on the Internet in cooperation with IBM, who owned half of Prodigy.[6] By 1995 PC Flowers & Gifts had launched a commercial version of the website and had 2,600 affiliate marketing partners on the World Wide Web. Tobin applied for a patent on tracking and affiliate marketing on January 22, 1996, and was issued U.S. Patent number 6,141,666 on Oct 31, 2000. Tobin also received Japanese Patent number 4021941 on Oct 5, 2007, and U.S. Patent number 7,505,913 on Mar 17, 2009, for affiliate marketing and tracking.[7] In July 1998 PC Flowers and Gifts merged with Fingerhut and Federated Department Stores.[8]
You can’t make claims about a product that would require proof the advertiser doesn’t have. The Guides give the example of a blogger commissioned by an advertiser to review a new body lotion. Although the advertiser does not make any claims about the lotion’s ability to cure skin conditions and the blogger does not ask the advertiser whether there is substantiation for the claim, she writes that the lotion cures eczema. The blogger is subject to liability for making claims without having a reasonable basis for those claims.
PA API or Data Feeds may allow you to access data, images, text, and other information and content relating to products offered on one or more affiliate sites. If you use PA API or Data Feeds to access or use any such data, images, text, or other information or content, you agree to comply with and be bound by the terms of the applicable license agreement for PA API or Data Feeds (or equivalent service) providing Product Advertising Content from such affiliate sites.

(k) If you display Product Advertising Content consisting of text on your application, you will include the following disclaimer in plain view to end users of your application: “CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS [IN THIS APPLICATION or ON THIS SITE, as applicable] COMES FROM AMAZON. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED ‘AS IS’ AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.” You agree to provide us with any information that we request to verify your compliance with this License.

(b) Amazon Marks Limited License. Amazon grants to you a non-exclusive, non-transferable, non-sublicensable, non-assignable, revocable right and license to display, publish, and reproduce Amazon Marks that Amazon may provide to you from time to time in connection with Local Associates Program solely for the purpose of marketing Local Associates Products. Amazon reserves all right, title, and interest in and to its Intellectual Property Rights and no title to or ownership of any of Amazon’s Intellectual Property Rights (including with respect to Amazon Marks) is transferred or licensed in connection with this Local Associates Policy. “Intellectual Property Right” means any patent, copyright, trademark, or trade secret right and any other intellectual property or proprietary right in any jurisdiction, including any and all applications, registration and rights of registration, reissues, divisions, continuations, substitutes, renewals, and extensions in respect thereto, and any causes of action related to any violation, infringement or misappropriation thereof. Upon the termination of your participation in the Local Associates Program by Amazon or you, you will immediately cease and discontinue all further use of the Amazon Marks, any and all licenses you have with respect to the Amazon Marks will automatically terminate. You will promptly (within 7 calendar days) stop using and remove or destroy all Amazon Marks and any other materials provided or made available by or on behalf of Amazon to you under this Local Associates Policy.
If they own a website or a business in a similar niche, then owning a large affiliate site could be a great complementary way to make more money while still dominating the main niche that they are focusing on. Since affiliate sites do not take a lot of time to manage when not in growth mode, a Strategic Sally could buy this site and just use it to boost her personal brand or the business that she is currently growing with ease.
(j) You will not exceed, or if you build and release an application that calls PA API, each copy of that application that is installed by an end user will not exceed, any limit on calls per second set forth in any Specifications (or that we otherwise notify you apply) and you will not send files to or from PA API that are greater than 40KB without our prior written approval.
Advertisers need to have reasonable programs in place to train and monitor members of their network. The scope of the program depends on the risk that deceptive practices by network participants could cause consumer harm – either physical injury or financial loss. For example, a network devoted to the sale of health products may require more supervision than a network promoting, say, a new fashion line. Here are some elements every program should include:
(c) Recommendations Page. We reserve all right, title and interest (including all intellectual property and proprietary rights) in and to, and you do not, by virtue of this Local Associates Policy or otherwise, acquire any ownership interest or rights in or to, the Recommendation Page, the Recommendation Page URL, or information and materials on the Recommendation Page. You will not take any action that conflicts with our rights in, or ownership of, the Recommendation Page. Amazon reserves all rights to determine the content, appearance, functionality, URL, and all other aspects of the Recommendation Page, including through the display of (i) advertising materials on the Recommendation Page, without compensation to any Local Associate, and (ii) disclosure (by text, link, icon, or otherwise) regarding your participation in this Local Associates Program.
(f) You will not (i) interfere, or attempt to interfere, in any manner with the functionality or proper working of PA API; (ii) compile or use Product Advertising Content for the purpose of direct marketing, spamming, unsolicited contacting of sellers or customers, or other advertising activities; or (iii) remove, obscure, alter, or make invisible, illegible, or indecipherable, any notice, including any notice of intellectual property or proprietary right, appearing on or contained within PA API, Data Feeds, Product Advertising Content, or Specifications.
Back when text link ads were a big deal, I remember seeing every single “make money online” website with a 125 x 125 pixel advertisement for Text Link Ads, which was an older advertising model where you could have advertisers pay for having specific terms on your website become links to their products. This was big in the blogosphere when I was just starting out. Most of these sites did not actually use the text link ad service on their own sites. On many personal finance blogs, you’ll see a lot of different affiliate advertisements for things like ING, Everbank, LendingClub, and numerous other financial institutions.
Hi Spencer, I remember the post where you said your site was penalized and you we’re convinced it was due to too much affiliate links. bestsurvivalknife site… i also remember you had (i asume) the same link twice everytime, once as an image and once as a textlink. Whenever i check a site’s outbound links i notice that each link only gets counted once , it seems to ignore duplicates, so even tho a site might have an image and a textlink pointing to the same productpage/url it would only get counted as 1 outbound (affiliate)link This is what i see when i check outbound links with seoquake. Do you think Google sees it like that as well? I’m asking cause up to this point ive been very cautious with placing affiliate links and avoided placing them in my images to keep it at a minimum.
You must use both a unique public key/private key pair (each key pair, an “Account Identifier”) and an Associates tag parameter (which can be either the Associate ID issued to you under the Amazon Associates Program or a related Associates Program tracking ID) to identify your account and make calls to PA API. You may obtain your Account Identifiers through PA API account creation process.
People have different definitions of “cloaking and masking”. You are likely referring to the “bad” kind that is manipulative. However, most affiliate also refer to “cloaking” as changing a link to look pretty. Changing this link: nichepursuits.com/amazon/associate-20/123ma9/producta to nichepursuits.com/cameras. That kind of “cloaking” is just fine.
15) Independent Contractors: You and GenealogyBank.com are independent contractors and nothing in this Agreement is intended nor shall be construed to create any partnership, joint venture, agency, franchise, sales representative, or employment relationship between the parties. You will have no authority to make or accept any offers or representations on our behalf.
It’s extremely WordPress-friendly. As you’ll soon see, it’s very easy to add Amazon affiliate links to WordPress. If you decide that you want more than just the occasional link to appear within your content and you want to build an entire affiliate store, there are WordPress affiliate themes and plugins built specifically for Amazon Associates members.

This site is made available for educational purposes only as well as to give you general information about business practices and strategy, not to provide specific business advice. Information provided on the Business.com website should not be used as a substitute for legal, accounting, real estate, business, tax, or other types of professional advice.


Most affiliate partnerships assign an account manager. Your account manager might tell you when there are specials or new products to promote. But it is crucial that you speak to them regularly and get on their best side, because they can increase your commission if you are sending great traffic. They could also give you an exclusivity deal and bump up your pay more.
Revglue is not only providing data sets but also providing web design and development tools free of cost for affiliates. Affiliates can setup affiliate website using their free wordpress template and plugins. Plugins of Revglue are fully compatible with its all data sets. Revglue.com is also providing tool for stats affiliates can track their sales and conversion data under one panel.
I could have promoted WP Engine (hosting company) for $200/sale with no tier program to climb – sounds pretty good right? But when I checked ShareASale I saw their reversal rates were 24%! Just to give you an idea SiteGround’s reversals are less than 10%. WP Engine starts at $29/month while SiteGround’s is $3.95/month, plus SiteGround has a better reputation. I had to climb a tier program to get SiteGround’s $150/sale, but long-term my research paid off.
8.1. You are free to promote your own web sites, but naturally any promotion that mentions Merchant.com could be perceived by the public or the press as a joint effort. You should know that certain forms of advertising are always prohibited by Merchant.com. For example, advertising commonly referred to as "spamming" is unacceptable to us and could cause damage to our name. Other generally prohibited forms of advertising include the use of unsolicited commercial email (UCE), postings to non-commercial newsgroups and cross-posting to multiple newsgroups at once. In addition, you may not advertise in any way that effectively conceals or misrepresents your identity, your domain name, or your return email address. You may use mailings to customers to promote Merchant.com so long as the recipient is already a customer or subscriber of your services or web site, and recipients have the option to remove themselves from future mailings. Also, you may post to newsgroups to promote Merchant.com so long as the news group specifically welcomes commercial messages. At all times, you must clearly represent yourself and your web sites as independent from Merchant.com. If it comes to our attention that you are spamming, we will consider that cause for immediate termination of this Agreement and your participation in the Merchant.com Affiliate Program. Any pending balances owed to you will not be paid if your account is terminated due to such unacceptable advertising or solicitation.
2.2. As a member of Merchant.com's Affiliate Program, you will have access to Affiliate Account Manager. Here you will be able to review our Program’s details and previously-published affiliate newsletters, download HTML code (that provides for links to web pages within the Merchant.com web site) and banner creatives, browse and get tracking codes for our coupons and deals. In order for us to accurately keep track of all guest visits from your site to ours, you must use the HTML code that we provide for each banner, text link, or other affiliate link we provide you with.

My name is Jamie Spencer and I have spent the past 5 years building money making blogs. After growing tired of the 9-5, commuting and never seeing my family I decided that I wanted to make some changes and launched my first blog. Since then I have launched lots of successful niche blogs and after selling my survivalist blog I decided to teach other people how to do the same.

There is another opportunity out there for the savvy Amazon FBA owner, or even e-commerce store owner, as this Amazon update rolls out industry wide. That advantage is the ability to strategically acquire Amazon affiliate sites that are related to your niche. When you do this, you are basically buying traffic at a discount since these Amazon sites will dip in their earnings, and thus value, while still keeping the same amount of traffic.

Smaller and newer e-commerce businesses often find this practice especially appealing (although Amazon.com uses it, too). Unlike pay-per-click advertising, which charges merchants every time someone clicks on a link to their site, affiliate marketing costs nothing unless there is a sale — at which point a commission, typically between 4 and 20 percent, is paid. It has become an essential part of the online marketing toolbox, generating fees that Forrester Research projects will reach $3.4 billion next year.
Instead, he focused solely on one platform. When that platform fizzled out, he lost his foundation and his footing as an affiliate marketer. He was unable to reach the people who had once been visiting his website because he was now nowhere to be found. Had he diversified, he wouldn't have gone through the massive pain related to that ranking change.
In 2009, I originally published this post, the 3 Types of Affiliate Marketing Explained—and The One I Profit From. A lot has changed since then, and I’ve learned a ton along the way about affiliate marketing the right way. It’s now October 2018, and I wanted to share those new insights here, with a bunch of new takeaways for you to bring affiliate marketing into your own business!

This agreement will begin upon your sign-up with the affiliate program and will end when either you or the Program Operator terminates your affiliate status, or if your account is inactive in any continuous twelve month period. An affiliate may terminate this agreement at any time, and for any reason, by writing to – or emailing – the Program Operator at the email address listed on the website. The affiliate may not transfer this agreement, or any rights conveyed in this agreement, to any third party whatsoever.


Short Summary: Basically what the plugin does is allow you to quickly insert a text based affiliate link, the image of the product as an affiliate link, a product information grid, convert US Amazon links to UK, GR etc. via link localization etc. etc. and have all those things be affiliate links to Amazon.com so it does a great job of improving click through rates.
You’ve got my curiosity piqued on EasyAzon. I saw the instructional video where you get to send people through the localised links, but provided you fill in the associate or tracking number for every country, example XX1 for Canada, XX2 for UK, so on and so forth. Does that mean, I’ll need to register myself manually for all the Amazon affiliate programmes across different countries, or can I generate these numbers all on EasyAzon?
If you’ve considered using affiliate marketing in your business but failed to find a way to make an offer convert, listen up! Affiliate marketing is a simple additional revenue stream that pretty much anyone can implement to make money online, no matter what business you currently have. In this article, I’m going to share how to start affiliate marketing and the strategy I use to make affiliate offers convert.
first off, show visitors that you have a great site by getting a better theme! You did not get a penalty because of affiliate content, nor have I ever heard of, however, I have heard of sites in the past getting penalty for having do follow links to affiliate programs such as amazon, remember, google does not like you giving credit to a site in exchange for receiving paid compensation, so ask yourself, are your external links nofollow? this may also include any buttons/graphics that link to affiliate sites that do not have a no follow attribute, not going to go to much into this, so I am going to assume your content is ok, if it is, then you need to check your link portfolio; maybe you have too many low quality links and/or you may have over-optimized anchor/text in your link building efforts; bad links, over optimization are common link issues that could cause your site to get a penalty, as it is not about what you are writing about, if all else fails, then hire seo consultant for an entire site autdit, they will go through your site tooth and nail, and see why you have lost your rankings. good luck.

(b) Obtaining Product Advertising Content. You may obtain Product Advertising Content by making calls to PA API. If we provide express prior written approval, you may also obtain Product Advertising Content through a data feed (“Data Feeds”) that we make available via file transfer protocol. To request our approval for access to Product Advertising Content through Data Feeds, contact us via this link. If you obtain Product Advertising Content through Data Feeds, your access to and use of Data Feeds is subject to this License. You acknowledge that we may change, deprecate, or republish PA API or Data Feeds, or any features of PA API or Data Feeds, at any time and from time to time, and you agree that it is your responsibility to ensure that your access to and use of PA API or Data Feeds is compatible with the then-current requirements (including this License and all Program Policies).
On the other hand: the main reason of bankruptcy for small businesses is bad financial management. Simply said: to forget to make invoices, not checking the payments and not following bad payers. 1 out of 3 is going bankrupt for this reason alone. I had to learn it myself. I spend at least 10% of my time with financial stuff. I don’t love it but the bills get payed ;-)
The Amazon affiliate program has a 24-hour cookie, which means that once users click on an affiliate link to Amazon, anything they buy in the next 24 hours is commissionable to the affiliate whose link they last clicked. So if you click on Gawker’s affiliate link to Amazon to look at cable ties and end up buying another, unrelated product, Gawker Media still receives a commission for that sale.

It’s no secret that Amazon is a pioneer in ebooks and expanding opportunities for indie authors. But Amazon also led the way in online affiliate marketing. In 1996, Amazon was a small online book retailer run from Jeff Bezos’ garage. With a limited marketing budget, Amazon decided to tap into readers’ love of books to help spread the word. Instead of having an initial outlay of money to buy advertising, Amazon paid people a commission when they referred buying customers to Amazon. This commission was paid after the customer bought, eliminating upfront marketing costs.
You will be provided an affiliate identification number. Your affiliate ID number may be numeric and/or CaSe sEnSitIvE. For example, the code ‘learn_more’ is different from ‘Learn_More’. You are responsible for maintaining the secrecy and security of your affiliate ID number and password. You agree to hold the Program Operator harmless in the event that any such information is shared by you with any other person or entity whatsoever.
d) To the extent you have in any manner violated or threatened to violate the Program Operator’s intellectual property rights, the Program Operator may seek injunctive or other appropriate relief in any court located in Anchorage, AK, USA and you consent to exclusive jurisdiction and venue in such courts. Use of the Program Operator website is unauthorized in any jurisdiction that does not give effect to all provisions of these terms and conditions, including without limitation this paragraph. You agree that no joint venture, partnership, employment, or agency relationship exists between you and the Program Operator as a result of this agreement or use of the website, products, and/or services. The Program Operator’s performance of this agreement is subject to existing laws and legal process, and nothing contained in this agreement is in derogation of the Program Operator’s right to comply with governmental, court and law enforcement determined to be invalid or unenforceable pursuant to applicable law including, but not limited to, the warranty disclaimers and liability limitations set forth above, then the invalid or unenforceable provision will be deemed superseded by a valid, enforceable provision that most closely matches the intent of the original provision and the remainder of the agreement shall continue in effect.

I’m now looking to set up a niche site in the next month or so to better leverage the program and your advice. And, of course collectively, this should help on the commission rate. I’ve been at 6.5% and hoping this month I may hit 7%. But, the key issue is that the avg sale is low (no surprise given what I’m promoting) so hopefully, this new site will help with this and diversify my efforts.


I’ve been an Amazon affiliate for many years. At first it was great but now Amazon treats affiliates more like competitors than a feeder of business. Amazon’s performance after a transaction is “handed off” to them is horrible. In any given month they “loose” from 60% to 80% of my customers’ orders at check out. These are not conversion rates on a link but actual orders at check out.
Still haven’t made any money on my aforementioned website I was talking about above. However, I started another website and I AM making money with that. Two very different niches lol. The one I am making money with will HAVE to be a higher amount eventually, but I am happy to be making money at all because I have tried this whole affiliate thing for years and never made ANY money. So selling $300 worth of stuff and making $35 makes me ecstatic lol
In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over Amazon.com sales to residents of New York, based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon.[41] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state, and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January 2009. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts.

An affiliate marketing program is by far one of the best advertising tools available, because it provides incentives for both the affiliate and the merchant. Affiliate marketing has grown greatly over the last couple of years because more and more webmasters are beginning to realize it is the most efficient way to handle your online advertising. It is extremely flexible and provides numerous benefits that you won't get with any other Learn More
One of the talking points in 2017 was Apple’s Intelligent Tracking Prevention feature for its Safari browser through its IOS 11 update - which meant first-party cookies that previously remained would expire within 24 hours while deleting a site’s cookies entirely if the user doesn’t visit the site for 30 days. This feature sparked controversy in the digital marketing space with comments from the IAB, Webgains and Tradetracker on the impact it had on tracking users’ behaviour.
(v) You will not cloak, hide, spoof, or otherwise obscure the URL of your Site containing Special Links (including by use of Redirecting Links) or the user agent of the application in which Program Content is displayed or used such that we cannot reasonably determine the site or application from which a customer clicks through such Special Link to an Amazon Site.
If you’re in the WordPress industry like I am (whether it be design, development, or SEO) I have accumulated quite the list of WordPress affiliate programs. I excluded those I found unsuccessful or pay too little to make a profit from, specifically ThemeForest, Creative Market, and low quality theme stores like Template Monster. Hosting pays well and I wrote a tutorial for SiteGround’s affiliate program and StudioPress themes which are my 2 highest paying affiliates. Those tutorials have tons of screenshots/social proof especially for SiteGround.
Bounty Events are available in select countries as referenced in the Appendix (“Special Program Fees”). You will earn Special Program Fees described in this Section 4(a) in connection with “Bounty Events” which occur when (1) a customer, who must be eligible for the Bounty Event as described in the Appendix, clicks through a Special Link on your Site to a bounty-specific homepage on an Amazon Site, and (2) during the resulting Session the customer completes the bounty action described in the Appendix.
From time to time, we may make changes to the advertising fee rates including but not limited to 1.) Exclude certain products or categories of products from earning advertising fees and/or 2.) Reduce or Increase the advertising fee for specific products or categories of products. We may also run special or limited time offers or promotions under which you may earn advertising fees on Products or categories of Products that were previously excluded from earning advertising fees, or you may earn increased advertising fee rates from those set forth above.
Links that Dynamically Generate Products: Certain types of links that we may make available to you dynamically generate particular Products to display based on a contextual analysis of the page on which they appear. Amazon will crawl or otherwise monitor your Site and store gathered content to implement these types of links and to improve dynamic generation and the Associates Program. If you implement mechanisms that prevent us from crawling or otherwise monitoring your Site, you agree that these types of links may not function properly, and you will be solely responsible for any such malfunction.

Now this one’s a perfect fit for the beginners. Starting right from understanding how Amazon Affiliation works to developing a complete website to even ranking your keywords on the first page of Google, this course will help you do it all. This training is not just for quick success, but will help you understand how to build long term income. It is well worth your investment specially when you are right about to start your internet marketing journey.
This Affiliate Agreement ("Agreement") contains the complete terms and conditions between us, FatCow ("FatCow") and you, regarding your application to and participation in, the FatCow Affiliate Program (the “Affiliate Program”) as an affiliate of FatCow (an “Affiliate”), and the establishment of links from your website to our website, https://www.FatCow.com.
Commissions will accrue and only become payable once you (i) provide all relevant tax and address documentation pursuant to Section 9 below and (ii) reach the Commission Threshold of $50 based on the commission rates stated on the FatCow website, solely as applied to Qualified Purchases which occurred within ninety (90) days of the end of the calendar month in which the first of such Qualified Purchases occurred. For example, if you provide sign-ups which result in one Qualified Purchase on January 1st and a second sign-up which leads to a Qualified Purchase on August 10th, and you provide all necessary tax documentation on August 10th, no commission would accrue because the second Qualified Purchase occurred more than one hundred and eighty (180) days after the end of January when the first Qualified Purchase occurred. However, if you subsequently provide a sign up which leads to another Qualified Purchase on September 5th of the same year, then commissions would accrue on the latter two Qualified Purchases (i.e., the Qualified Purchases from August and September of the same year). All Qualified Purchases still eligible to result in commissions under this Section 8 must remain active and in good standing pursuant to the terms of this Agreement in order to remain eligible for accrual of a commission. Once a commission has accrued under this Section 8, the amount of such commission (the “Commission Fee”) shall be due and payable to you under the terms of Section 9. FatCow reserves the right to change the Commission Threshold by amending this Agreement and will notify you for any such amendment pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

My conversion rate went from 2.5% to 8% just by including Facebook polls where SiteGround was rated #1 (here’s last year’s poll) plus Twitter screenshots and Facebook conversations. Whether it’s Amazon reviews or social proof, you NEED to include outside opinions. You can also use WP Rich Snippets to allow people to leave a review about the product/service on your site and get those review stars in Google (you will want to use their front end submit add-on).
My conversion rate went from 2.5% to 8% just by including Facebook polls where SiteGround was rated #1 (here’s last year’s poll) plus Twitter screenshots and Facebook conversations. Whether it’s Amazon reviews or social proof, you NEED to include outside opinions. You can also use WP Rich Snippets to allow people to leave a review about the product/service on your site and get those review stars in Google (you will want to use their front end submit add-on).
PayPal Payments: Please refer to PayPal's policy to ensure you are eligible to receive payment if you reside outside of the United States https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_display-approved-signup-countries-outside. (PayPal payments will only be reissued within one hundred and twenty (120) days of the original issue date in the case of an incorrect PayPal address or refusal from PayPal to accept a payment.)
MA shall notify Company promptly of any misuse of unauthorized use of the Technology, which comes to the attention of MA, and shall notify its Clients upon the request of Company when Company believes such Technology are being misused. MA shall cooperate, at Company’s reasonable expense, with Company in any action, including any legal action, which Company may feel is necessary in order to protect the Technology.
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