While every affiliate program is different, you are less likely to be hit by a ban hammer in the affiliate space than in the Adsense space.  In general, affiliate networks can be a bit more lenient with their terms of services. You also have the benefit that many networks are hosting the same offers, so if one does ban you, you can usually replace that income with the new network offer.
Warren Davies has been writing since 2007, focusing on bespoke projects for online clients such as PsyT and The Institute of Coaching. This has been alongside work in research, web design and blogging. A Linux user and gamer, warren trains in martial arts as a hobby. He has a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science in psychology, and further qualifications in statistics and business studies.
Special Links may be created by you or made available to you by us. If we inform you that your Site does not qualify to use certain types of links, you must cease displaying those types of links on your Site. You are solely responsible for the content, style, and placement of each link that you place on your Site and for ensuring that Special Links (whether created by you or made available to you by us) include the appropriate formatting necessary for us to properly track referrals of our customers from your Site. You must not encourage customers to bookmark your Special Links. All Special Links must be accessed directly from your Site. For example, you must include your Associates ID or “tag” (appearing as XXXXX-20, or such other format as we may designate) as a parameter in the URL of each link you place on your Site to an Amazon Site.

Google Autocomplete – go to google.com, start typing a phrase and look at the dropdown autocomplete results. You can use the underscore character “_” to have Google fill-in-the-blank. Just make sure the last character you type is an underscore. Try using plurals and change the word ordering to see different results. This is how I find 90% of my keywords.

This is how you turn visitors into buyers into raving fans. If anyone is serious about "making it" in affiliate marketing, or simply making any semblance of money online, they have to adhere to this single principle. The better you get at creating an emotional attachment during each stage of your funnel, the more likely you'll be to succeed and even to get rich through your efforts.
(z) You will not display on your Site, or otherwise use, any Program Content to advertise or promote any products that are offered on any site that is not an Amazon Site (e.g., products offered by other retailers). You will not display on your Site or otherwise use any data, images, text, or other information or content you may obtain from us that relates to Excluded Products.
Affiliates were among the earliest adopters of pay per click advertising when the first pay-per-click search engines emerged during the end of the 1990s. Later in 2000 Google launched its pay per click service, Google AdWords, which is responsible for the widespread use and acceptance of pay per click as an advertising channel. An increasing number of merchants engaged in pay per click advertising, either directly or via a search marketing agency, and realized that this space was already occupied by their affiliates. Although this situation alone created advertising channel conflicts and debates between advertisers and affiliates, the largest issue concerned affiliates bidding on advertisers names, brands, and trademarks.[35] Several advertisers began to adjust their affiliate program terms to prohibit their affiliates from bidding on those type of keywords. Some advertisers, however, did and still do embrace this behavior, going so far as to allow, or even encourage, affiliates to bid on any term, including the advertiser's trademarks.
There is, of course, a pretty obvious conflict of interest in many implementations of this model. The affiliate only makes money if visitors click on the affiliate links and ultimately buy the products reviewed. But while there is an obvious incentive to write falsely positive reviews, that strategy generally has a pretty limited life expectancy. In order to be successful using this model over the long term, you’ll need the trust of an audience that can only be earned through integrity and transparency.
Thank you so much for a clear and concise breakdown of the Amazon Associate program. I’ve been ready (finally) to make the jump and have been working out my monetization strategies. This tutorial has not only helped me better understand how the program works, but has also given me some other – much simpler – ideas for other niche sites that I can get up and going very quickly! I appreciate your hard work and the effort you put into this. I look forward to reading more from you.
The fact is that most of the bigger companies that offer products and services for affiliates to promote use larger affiliate networks to position their offers. Some of the bigger affiliate networks include ClickBank, CommissionJunction, Rakuten's LinkShare, Impact Radius and countless others. Sometimes, like with the case of Fiverr for example, they run their own affiliate networks so you would apply directly to the company.

21) Assignment: Neither this Agreement nor any of your rights, interests, duties, or obligations shall be assigned, transferred or delegated to any other person, firm, or corporation without our prior written consent. Any attempted assignment or delegation by Affiliate without such prior written consent shall be void and without effect. We may assign this Agreement upon written notice to you.


(d) Indemnification. WE WILL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY MATTER DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY RELATING TO THE CREATION, MAINTENANCE, OR OPERATION OF THE INFLUENCER PAGE, AND YOU AGREE TO DEFEND, INDEMNIFY, AND HOLD US, OUR AFFILIATES AND LICENSORS, AND OUR AND THEIR RESPECTIVE EMPLOYEES, OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, AND REPRESENTATIVES, HARMLESS FROM AND AGAINST ALL CLAIMS, DAMAGES, LOSSES, LIABILITIES, COSTS, AND EXPENSES (INCLUDING ATTORNEYS’ FEES) RELATING TO ANY CONTENT WITHIN THE INFLUENCER PAGE PROVIDED BY YOU.
In my early days, I used to have a few of these links scattered throughout SPI—for example, an ad for a “How to Make an iPhone App” product. I used to have a few iPhone apps that generated an income for me each month, but I didn’t actually use the product I was linking to. I did, however, personally know the owner, which is why I trusted him and decided to place that ad there at the time.
15) Independent Contractors: You and GenealogyBank.com are independent contractors and nothing in this Agreement is intended nor shall be construed to create any partnership, joint venture, agency, franchise, sales representative, or employment relationship between the parties. You will have no authority to make or accept any offers or representations on our behalf.
Thanks a lot for those tips. I bought your course but found that the module for finding a niche cannot be easily applied for the following reasons: 1) domain (com, net, org) that match exact keywords are almost taken by someone else; 2) even if you can find an exact match keyword domain, changes are there are other competitors building similar niche review sites, simply adding good quality articles and build links with some social book marking do not seem to work well; 3) can you elaborate in details how to do the SEO for a specific niche using real exams (e.g., if you say social bookmarking, can you tell us how to find those sites or even provide a list of sites; if you use blog comments, can you walk thru the process to find good quality blog that accept comments with “do follow” etc
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications. This step is important to keep your costs down and still get what you want. If you're not familiar with basic HTML and basic concepts about running a website, invest in the time to learn; it will be well worth the outlay in the long run. Even if the site is basically a template for you to use, you're still going to need to know how to insert images, create hyperlinks, and do some text formatting.
LongTail Pro has proven to be an indispensable asset when it comes to keyword research for me and my colleagues.I personally have been using the service for a while now, and have found over time that the data it gives around keywords tend to be more accurate than the other keyword tools on the market. I also introduced the LongTailPro to my colleagues who previously had been using other solutions, and now they absolutely swear by it! It is the go-to tool for keyword research at our agency. I highly recommend it.
5. If you are familiar with Internet marketing at all you know that what worked three months ago may not work today. Stay on top of the trends. Seek knowledge, start by learning something new about affiliate marketing daily. For example remember those marketing tools called "banner" that use to drive sales at an astronomical rate a few years ago? Well those banners developed a term called "banner blindness." That means most online viewers will not click on banners even if they do pertain to what they are looking for. To be a "super" affiliate you must always spend time reading, learning, and embracing the changes in Internet marketing. 6. Don't Give Up It's hard to do, and most of the time those dabbling in affiliate marketing give up way too soon. Monitor your statistics, watch to see what is working and what is not. Make changes when necessary. Do one thing daily to promote your storehouse and be patient. Before you know it you will start getting payments. Remember that it will not happen overnight. Encompass and develop the persistence, patience, and knowledge. Then follow the tactics I've mentioned above and you are on your way to becoming a "super" affiliate. Performance review phrases comments/ free download examples Page 5

Traffic can be generated from Facebook, Twitter or Instagram. Marketers can get an Ad Words account and work with providers like Taboola, Outbrain, Web Content, Adblade, AdSense or Bing. There are tracking packages like Click Tracker, Clickmagick, Voluum or ClickMeter. Autoresponder software may be required to get messages out and track interested buyers of your product.
Once your platform is live, you need a product to promote. However, you should avoid the temptation to do this early on. Get that emotional investment going before you attempt to do this. If you begin too early, you run the risk of losing a large portion of your audience. Take the time to first create insatiable content and deliver enormous amounts of value before you attempt to sell your audience anything.

Hi Spencer – an informative and very timely post for me as I am finally biting the bullet and setting up my first niche site which will be monetised with Amazon affiliate links. I have been considering adding an aStore but I am very conscious of the google penalty for having too many affiliate links on a page. How would this be viewed in terms of links – would each item in the store count as a separate affiliate link?
Create custom alerts on your phone for affiliate sales – if you use GMail, go to your settings and create a filter so all emails with “SiteGround Affiliate Sale Generated” in the subject line go into their own folder (tweak the subject line to match whatever email notification your affiliate sends you). Then setup a custom alert on your phone using the GMail app so anytime you generate a sale, you get a custom alert (here’s a tutorial for Android and here’s one for Apple). I have different notifications for SiteGround, StudioPress Themes, etc. Makes your day better :)

Revglue is providing best tools for affiliates and publishers to build and monetise their websites. They collect data from all the leading UK’s affiliate networks then clean and sort it properly and provide it in structured format to affiliates that will help the affiliates to build & monetise website very easily and quickly. RevGlue.com also offers data sets for those who don't want to work directly with the affiliate networks, they can work with revglue on revenue share model, they can use different tools i.e Revads, RevEmbed, RevSocial etc to monetise their website and blogs.


Assuming a four-percent cut may be underestimating the overall commission rate the media giant averages. Amazon’s commission structure consists of multiple classes of commission rates. Certain product categories have fixed commission rates, while commissions on General Products start at four percent and can go up to 8.5 percent, depending on sales volume.


We may modify any of the terms and conditions in this Agreement at any time at our sole discretion. In such event, you will be notified by email. Modifications may include, but are not limited to, changes in the payment procedures and Merchant.com's Affiliate Program rules. If any modification is unacceptable to you, your only option is to end this Agreement. Your continued participation in Merchant.com's Affiliate Program following the posting of the change notice or new Agreement on our site will indicate your agreement to the changes.
Whenever someone orders through your affiliate link, your affiliate ID is credited with a referral fee. When another affiliate registers as an affiliate using your affiliate link, your account is credited as the Sponsoring affiliate. You do not earn a referral fee for any other affiliate’s registration. The commission/referral fee amount varies from product, service or opportunity. The rate at which your referral fee is generated can be found on the website and is subject to change at any time.  If the website is silent as to the commission rate, then the base rate is 25%.
If you’ve considered using affiliate marketing in your business but failed to find a way to make an offer convert, listen up! Affiliate marketing is a simple additional revenue stream that pretty much anyone can implement to make money online, no matter what business you currently have. In this article, I’m going to share how to start affiliate marketing and the strategy I use to make affiliate offers convert.
For example, someone like Tim Ferriss can recommend products to his audience because he has earned an authoritative voice on fitness, productivity, learning and lifestyle design through his blog and his books. Tim’s blog is a perfect example of how to build a successful affiliate model. Tim rarely actually recommends products, but when he does you can tell he is being genuine and not just trying to earn money from his audience.
This Agreement may be terminated by either party at the expiration of its term or any renewal term upon thirty (30) days written notice to the other party. Company acknowledges that this Agreement shall not be terminated for MA’s failure to follow an operating plan, standard procedure, training manual, or substantial equivalent published in Paragraph 3 (k) of this Agreement, except that Company does reserve the right to terminate this Agreement for MA’s failure to follow required procedures relating to the processing of sales contracts, invoices and billing related to Technology sold under this Agreement.
You understand that we may at any time (directly or indirectly) solicit FatCow relationships on terms that may differ from those contained in this Agreement. We may also solicit relationships with entities that operate websites that are similar to or compete with your Affiliate Site. You have independently evaluated the desirability of participating in the FatCow Affiliate Program and are not relying on any representation, guarantee, or statement other than as set forth in this Agreement
A browser extension is a plug-in that extends the functionality of a web browser. Some extensions are authored using web technologies such as HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Most modern web browsers have a whole slew of third-party extensions available for download. In recent years, there has been a constant rise in the number of malicious browser extensions flooding the web. Malicious browser extensions will often appear to be legitimate as they seem to originate from vendor websites and come with glowing customer reviews.[28] In the case of affiliate marketing, these malicious extensions are often used to redirect a user’s browser to send fake clicks to websites that are supposedly part of legitimate affiliate marketing programs. Typically, users are completely unaware this is happening other than their browser performance slowing down. Websites end up paying for fake traffic number, and users are unwitting participants in these ad schemes.
This site holds no stock whatsoever. They are just promoting amazon products by ranking high for keyword terms around scooters “best pro scooter” “best scooters for kids”. People are searching for these terms in their thousands every month. They click on his amazon links, purchase products on amazon and then the owner of myproscooter.com will get commission on the whole basket.

(b) Influencer Page. This Influencer Program may include an Amazon Site influencer page registered through Amazon and assigned to you (“Influencer Page”). With respect to Special Links that direct customers to your Influencer Page, the related Session will be measured as beginning when our customer clicks through to your Influencer Page. The Influencer Page is a “Service Offering” for all purposes under the Agreement. With respect to any text, pictures, compilations, lists, comments or other data or content you submit to Amazon in connection with the Influencer Program (“Influencer Content”), you will not submit such Influencer Content if it violates any standard included in Section 1 of the Participation Requirements.


Every single network or merchant will provide you with specific links that you can use to promote whatever it is you're looking to sell. Be sure to scrutinize the details of any offer that you decide to partake in. Then, build out your affiliate links and ensure that the sales and clicks are registering your to your account. You can use URL shorteners like Bitly or Google's own shortener to make the links more manageable in terms of length.
In reviewing your website, we noticed that the URL listed on your application is a social network website. However, your site is not an approved social network or established with enough unique content and followers yet. At this time, we are unable to approve your application and have closed the account under which you had been temporarily approved.
Your company is ultimately responsible for what others do on your behalf. You should make sure your public relations firm has an appropriate program in place to train and monitor members of its social media network. Ask for regular reports confirming that the program is operating properly and monitor the network periodically. Delegating part of your promotional program to an outside entity doesn’t relieve you of responsibility under the FTC Act.
This single article, to date, has generated 871 unique visitors to my affiliate link, 132 free trial signups for GetResponse, and 77 front-end sales… And the best part about promoting something like GetResponse is that the commissions that it generates are recurring. Customers pay on a monthly basis. Finding offers that pay affiliates on a recurring base is one of the most common overlooked details when people start considering how to start affiliate marketing.
10) Confidentiality: Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement or with the consent of the other party hereto, each of the parties hereto agrees that all information, including, without limitation, the terms of this Agreement, business and financial information, customer and vendor lists, and pricing and sales information, concerning us or you, respectively, or any of our Affiliates provided by or on behalf of any of them shall remain strictly confidential and secret and shall not be utilized, directly or indirectly, by such party for its own business purposes or for any other purpose except and solely to the extent that any such information is generally known or available to the public through a source or sources other than such party hereto or its affiliates. This provision shall survive termination of this Agreement.
Affiliate Disclaimer – if you sign up for SiteGround using my affiliate link I will donate a good chunk at no expense to you. This year I donated $3,000 to feed the homeless in Denver. In 2017, I donated $3,000 to American Red Cross at Hurricane Harvey. Your support helps and I genuinely appreciate it. I try to make my reviews unbiased and backed by evidence in the form of Facebook polls, tweets, and real conversations. If you don’t want to use it, here’s a non-affiliate link to SiteGround. Either way I truly believe they’re the best host and that your site will run faster/smoother… do your research on Google and Facebook groups and you’ll find most people say the same.

9.2 Commissions are tracked through the use of cookies. In some cases it will not be possible to track traffic from the Affiliate's site to GenealogyBank.com, because the visitor is using cookie-blocking software. GenealogyBank.com is only responsible for paying commissions on referrals that can be tracked back to the Affiliate using the technology in use by GenealogyBank.com.
Affiliate marketing has a very low barrier to entry; many merchants accept everyone who applies for affiliation. Some forms of affiliate marketing don't even require the affiliate to have a website. This creates a very high level of competition, especially for particularly profitable offers. In forums where affiliates participate, there are frequent claims of commission theft or hijacking by other affiliates and even by merchants. A cookie system that credits the sale to the last link clicked makes these actions more likely.
Dating Advice is another affiliate site that makes money by promoting their affiliate links to different dating apps and websites (like Match and eHarmony). The dating niche is an incredibly profitable niche for internet marketers of all stripes. They often attracts people who want to make a quick buck, unfortunately, selling gimmicky info products or shady memberships.
Amazon didn't immediately respond to a request for comment. The email they sent to affiliates said, "We have received feedback from associates that the advertising fee structure could be made clearer, especially with respect to understanding which products are in fixed-fee categories and which products are in tiered-fee categories. These changes simplify the fee structure, clearly defining the advertising fees you can earn by referring traffic to Amazon."
Sometimes, individual entrepreneurs with great products are worth a look, although you should check them out first and do some research. Entrepreneurs or companies may run their own affiliate program and you can apply directly to them to promote their products and services. Finally, Amazon is always an option as you can be an affiliate for just about any type of physical product on their network.

This Agreement is accepted by Company in the State of Nevada and shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws thereof, which laws shall prevail in the event of any conflict. For such limited purpose, MA hereby consents to the personal jurisdiction of any court of competent jurisdiction in the State of Nevada. If any legal action or proceeding is initiated, the prevailing party shall be entitled to all attorney fees, court costs, and expenses in addition to any other relief to which such prevailing party may be entitled.
Absolutely wonderful post! I love how you’re striaght forward with all your information but my favorite is how you describe the way you feel when you make that first sale. It’s always a great feeling to see a return on your efforts. I’d just like to add how important it is to Never Ever give up! If you have any interest at all in being successful in this business (and it is a business) then treat it like one and plan, prepare and dedicate yourself. Don’t always focus on making millions, focus on what it will take to change your life. Most peoples lives would change with just an extra $50k a year!
Amendment; No Waiver. We may update and change any part or all of this Agreement, including by replacing it in its entirety. If we update or change this Agreement, the updated Agreement will be made available to you via the Affiliate Tool and we will let you know by email. The updated Agreement will become effective and binding on the next business day after we have notified you. When we change this Agreement, the "Last Modified" date above will be updated to reflect the date of the most recent version. We encourage you to review this Agreement periodically.  If you don’t agree to the update, change or replacement, you can choose to terminate as we describe above. No delay in exercising any right or remedy or failure to object will be a waiver of such right or remedy or any other right or remedy. A waiver on one occasion will not be a waiver of any right or remedy on any future occasion.

If you write about how much you like something you bought on your own and you’re not being rewarded, you don’t have to worry. However, if you’re doing it as part of a sponsored campaign or you’re being compensated – for example, getting a discount on a future purchase or being entered into a sweepstakes for a significant prize – then a disclosure is appropriate.


The more people you are able to help, the more money you will make in return. It really is that simple. Sure, many other “guru’s” out there will tell you about ways to make money on auto-pilot using super-secret systems or software programs that do all the work for you. But unless you are truly providing value to other people, you will never make a good living long-term in affiliate marketing.
Thanks for a nice job. I am currently promoting some of the affiliate programs listed here and making a few dollars from them. But I must say that making money from affiliate programs is not rocket science; it requires hard work and perseverance. Affiliate marketing keeps evolving daily and any serious affiliate should be ready to change tactics and invest time and money in order to beat the competition. 

There’s no need to be intimidated by the cons noted above. Every affiliate program comes with them as does any working relationship you enter into with a well-known brand. Think of Amazon like Google: their top priority is keeping customers happy. Without their continued satisfaction, they wouldn’t be in business and you wouldn’t have an affiliate program to take advantage of, so they need to ensure you don’t abuse the terms of use.
For example, let’s say that we want to promote Drip as the better alternative to Infusionsoft… We would write up a comparative article that shows all of the reasons we like Drip better. We would then login to Google Adwords and create an ad campaign that links to our article and targets anyone who searches for “Infusionsoft” or “Infusionsoft Alternative.”
The FTC isn’t mandating the specific wording of disclosures. However, the same general principle – that people get the information they need to evaluate sponsored statements – applies across the board, regardless of the advertising medium. The words “Sponsored” and “Promotion” use only 9 characters. “Paid ad” only uses 7 characters. Starting a tweet with “Ad:” or “#ad” – which takes only 3 characters – would likely be effective.
Very interesting post. I am saving this page for future reference. I personally liked tip #9. I know some people who try to locate themselves in niches that sell high valued products only and they do not make enough sales, consequently low commission as well. It’s better to target those items that sell quickly first, where people do not do a lot of thinking and research before buying.
I feel like if you have 98% only affiliate content and no other valuable content it’s more likely to be penalized. I was following a lot of competitor sites in Ahrefs and noticed all the ones that tanked had only thin affiliate content and no non-affiliate content. For some reason I thought FixYourSkin was yours but I was wrong. That site went down like crazy and lost their traffic by half. I saw them trying to recover by adding more quality content but it doesn’t seem to help for them and it’s not helping me either.
You will not be eligible to receive any Standard Program Fees or Special Program Fees for any month if we determine that your Site is primarily promoting free Kindle eBooks and during that month (i) 20,000 or more free Kindle eBooks are ordered and downloaded during Sessions attributed to your Special Links, and (ii) at least 80% of all Kindle eBooks ordered and downloaded during Sessions attributed to your Special Links are free Kindle eBooks.
I expanded my SEO blog and started writing about hosting, cache plugins, and other relevant topics… while recommending SiteGround in each tutorial. I added social proof like this poll where they were rated the #1 host. Each tutorial was super detailed and tons of people found them helpful – many generated 100 visitors/day since the great content got them ranked high.
We could fib and say that building an affiliate website is simple, but that wouldn’t do you or your business any good. In truth, people spend days and weeks just researching the best niche and products for their affiliate sites. Then, it’s time to build, market, and plan content for the site to build an audience of people who are interested in the products you recommend.
7.2. Either party may terminate this Agreement at any time, for any reason, by deleting their acceptance of the Offer through support@briantracy.com upon five (5) days prior written notice of such termination to the other party. In addition, Brian Tracy shall be entitled to terminate this Agreement immediately if you materially breach or violate any terms or conditions of this Agreement, or if Brian Tracy determines, in its sole discretion, that there are technical, or operational issues (e.g. interruptions caused by or shifts in online/Internet technology) that adversely affect the implementation of the Program, or the orders/referrals were obtained fraudulently, or through misrepresentation, in which case Brian Tracy reserves the right to withhold payment of associated referral pending an investigation of the suspected fraud or misrepresentation. Termination of this Agreement shall also terminate any outstanding Offer. However, all rights to payment, causes of action and any provisions that by their terms are intended to survive termination, shall survive termination of this Agreement.
Still, as Amazon shifts its attention to new ventures in streaming and personal assistant hardware, many see it as an ominous sign for the affiliate program. “Amazon has done such a great job taking all their profit and dumping it back in to their business. And investors are now asking Amazon to show a profit,” says Lakes. “I’m not surprised that they’re whittling a few percent here and there.”

So I went to the same place I buy all my WordPress themes (Themeforest) and searched their hundreds of demo WordPress Themes to find the right one that made sense for my Amazon Affiliate Website. This is the style and look your website will have. I needed a clean looking blog (it’s great for SEO) and I needed a warm looking homepage. I found something flexible and looked professional after a couple hours searching.

Still, as Amazon shifts its attention to new ventures in streaming and personal assistant hardware, many see it as an ominous sign for the affiliate program. “Amazon has done such a great job taking all their profit and dumping it back in to their business. And investors are now asking Amazon to show a profit,” says Lakes. “I’m not surprised that they’re whittling a few percent here and there.”
5. Payment Options – Amazon pays their affiliates in a number of ways. One of the things that I like is that they give you the option to be paid in products instead of cash. I don’t do this every month (I couldn’t spend that $20,000+ a year at Amazon… well maybe I could) but occasionally do and use it as prizes for blog readers. I recently offered DPS readers $500 of Amazon products in a forum signup competition. The prize is paid for out of my affiliate earnings.
Business Practices. Company shall not specify the business practices of MA, nor regulate the manner in which MA shall operate its business, provided that MA (a) conducts business in a manner that reflects favorably at all times on the Technology sold and the good name, goodwill and reputation of Company and its affiliates; (b) avoid deceptive, misleading or unethical practices that are or might be detrimental to Company and/or its Affiliates, the Technology or the public, including but not limited to disparagement of Company or the Technology; (c) make no false or misleading representation with respect to Company or the Technology; and (d) make no representations with respect to Company or the Technology that are inconsistent with any applicable license agreement(s) for the Technology provided by Company, promotional materials and other literature distributed by Company pertaining specifically to the Technology, including all liability limitations and disclaimers contained in such materials. 
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