Thanks for posting these great tips. I am pondering getting into affiliate marketing. I survived a major stage 4 metastatic cancer but my finances, savings, career and credit were the sacrificial lambs on the alter of survival. I say pondering because I hear of so many starting out with ten tons of optimism and drive, only to end up bankrupt and on a long term Zoloft prescription. Are there simply too many online marketers out there or is it still possible to start from scratch and ramp up a descent business that stands out of the hay stacks? By descent, I mean enough to make a full time living, not worrying about food & shelter. How much time from zero to $4,000.00 per month (salary and/or net… spendable personal funds)
I think content marketing is absolutely huge for affiliate’s, especially going into 2016, I think it will increasingly become something that will have to be adopted to gain domain trust, authority and good SERP rankings. Google loves quality content and if you want your website to stand the test of time, white-hat SEO is a must and content marketing is king!
Thanks for a nice job. I am currently promoting some of the affiliate programs listed here and making a few dollars from them. But I must say that making money from affiliate programs is not rocket science; it requires hard work and perseverance. Affiliate marketing keeps evolving daily and any serious affiliate should be ready to change tactics and invest time and money in order to beat the competition.
You will indemnify, defend and hold us harmless, at your expense, against any third-party claim, suit, action, or proceeding (each, an "Action") brought against us (and our officers, directors, employees, agents, service providers, licensors, and affiliates) by a third party not affiliated with us to the extent that such Action is based upon or arises out of (a) your participation in the Affiliate Program, (b) our use of the prospect data you provided us, (c) your noncompliance with or breach of this Agreement, (d) your use of the Affiliate Tool, or (e) our use of the Affiliate Marks. We will: notify you in writing within thirty (30) days of our becoming aware of any such claim; give you sole control of the defense or settlement of such a claim; and provide you (at your expense) with any and all information and assistance reasonably requested by you to handle the defense or settlement of the claim. You shall not accept any settlement that (i) imposes an obligation on us; (ii) requires us to make an admission; or (iii) imposes liability not covered by these indemnifications or places restrictions on us without our prior written consent.
In 1994, Tobin launched a beta version of PC Flowers & Gifts on the Internet in cooperation with IBM, who owned half of Prodigy.[6] By 1995 PC Flowers & Gifts had launched a commercial version of the website and had 2,600 affiliate marketing partners on the World Wide Web. Tobin applied for a patent on tracking and affiliate marketing on January 22, 1996, and was issued U.S. Patent number 6,141,666 on Oct 31, 2000. Tobin also received Japanese Patent number 4021941 on Oct 5, 2007, and U.S. Patent number 7,505,913 on Mar 17, 2009, for affiliate marketing and tracking.[7] In July 1998 PC Flowers and Gifts merged with Fingerhut and Federated Department Stores.[8]
We've partnered with The Foundation for Learning and Youth Travel Education (FLYTE), a nonprofit organization that empowers youth living in underserved communities through transformative travel experiences. FLYTE teaches that we are more alike than we realize. By bridging the gap between fear and understanding, FLYTE empowers future generations by connecting them to the world.
Marketing Plan. MA shall submit an annual marketing plan to Company outlining, among other things, activities and staffing directed at attaining mutually agreed upon annual sales quotas. The Annual Quota is defined in Schedule A of this Agreement. The annual marketing plan shall be devised solely by MA and MA shall not be required to follow an operating plan, standard procedure, training manual, or its substantial equivalent, published by Company.
Even an incentive with no financial value might affect the credibility of an endorsement and would need to be disclosed. The Guides give the example of a restaurant patron being offered the opportunity to appear in television advertising before giving his opinion about a product. Because the chance to appear in a TV ad could sway what someone says, that incentive should be disclosed.
You will market Local Associates Products to Amazon customers only at those locations and through those methods by which you customarily conduct your registered business. Solely with respect to the Local Associates Program, and notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the Participation Requirements, you may include Special Links in written physical and digital materials (including email) which are displayed, distributed, emailed, or offered to customers, clients, or third parties with whom you have a preexisting relationship; provided, that such written physical and digital materials are in compliance with the Associates Program Operating Agreement, the Trademark Guidelines, and the Amazon Brand Usage Guidelines. Upon our request, you will provide us with representative sample materials and written certification that you have complied with the foregoing. We will specify the form of, and content required in, that certification in any such request. Any failure by you to provide the certification in accordance with our request will constitute a material breach of this Local Associates Policy. For the avoidance of doubt, (i) for the purposes of the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 and any similar or successor legislation (CAN-SPAM), you are the “Sender” of each email containing any Special Links, (ii) for the purposes of the Communications Act of 1934 as amended by Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 and any similar or successor legislation (TCPA), you “make” and “initiate” each text message containing any Special Links, and (iii) you must comply with CAN-SPAM, TCPA and marketing industry standards and best practices for all emails, texts, and other messages relating to the Local Associates Program. Amazon may revoke the offline marketing permissions granted in this Section 3 at any time in its sole discretion by providing written notice to you. 

It’s not a good idea. Endorsements must reflect the honest opinions or experiences of the endorser, and your plan could cause people to make up positive reviews even if they’ve never done business with you. However, it’s okay to invite people to post reviews of your business after they’ve actually used your products or services. If you’re offering them something of value in return for these reviews, tell them in advance that they should disclose what they received from you. You should also inform potential reviewers that the discount will be conditioned upon their making the disclosure. That way, other consumers can decide how much stock to put in those reviews.
19.2 Such systems include those commonly known as "ParasiteWare" or that carry out functions commonly known as "Parasitic Marketing." ParasiteWare is software (including, but not restricted to, browser helpers, browser plug-ins, toolbars and pop ups/sliders) that knowingly or unknowingly undermines or removes another affiliate's ability to compete by changing, intercepting or redirecting an affiliate link. ParasiteWare may be installed knowingly or unknowingly by the end user, altering normal web browser functions and/or installing a third party application that works through the user's altered browser.
You agree not to intentionally solicit for employment any of our employees or contractors during the term of this Agreement and for a period of twelve (12) months following the termination or expiration of this Agreement.  Both you and we acknowledge that (i) any newspaper or other public solicitation not directed specifically to such person shall not be deemed to be a solicitation for purposes of this provision, and (ii) this provision is not intended to limit the mobility of either our employees or contractors.

13) Disclaimers: We make no express or implied warranties or representations with respect to the GenealogyBank.com website or the GenealogyBank.com Affiliate Program (including, without limitation, warranties of fitness, merchantability, non-infringement, or any implied warranties arising out of course of performance, dealing, or trade usage). In addition, we make no representation that the operation of our site will be uninterrupted or error-free, and we will not be liable for the consequences of any interruptions or errors.

For example, when someone drops a comment on a blog post, you should engage with that person, even if it's only to say thanks. This helps to bridge that emotional divide. Be sure to stay on top of all engagement on every platform. Don't allow it to consume you, but do your best to respond to people in a timely manner. This could make all the difference in succeeding with a sale or making someone pass you up. The more you nurture and develop your audience, the more they'll believe become fervent buyers.


You further represent and warrant that: (i) you will ensure that you are compliant with any trade or regulatory requirements that may apply to your participation in the Affiliate Program (for example, by clearly stating you are a HubSpot Affiliate on any website(s) you own where you make an Affiliate Link available); (ii) you will accurately provide in the Affiliate Tool all websites and domains you own where you intend to use Affiliate Links to generate Affiliate Leads; (iii) you will not purchase ads that direct to your site(s) or through an Affiliate Link that could be considered as competing with HubSpot’s own advertising, including, but not limited to, our branded keywords; (iv) you will not participate in cookie stuffing or pop-ups, false or misleading links are strictly prohibited; (v) you will not attempt to mask the referring URL information; (vi) you will not use your own Affiliate Link to purchase HubSpot products for yourself.
1. What is affiliate marketing business model In this file, you can ref free useful materials about what is affiliate marketing business model and other materials for what is affiliate marketing business model such as affiliate programs, affiliate tips… If you need free ebook:  Top 21 affiliate marketing programs  Top 12 secrets to be successful in affiliate marketing  Top 8 free affiliate marketing ebooks for beginners pls visit: affiliatemarketingaz.com I. Affiliate marketing guides In today’s post I am going to reveal to you the ultimate affiliate marketing strategy that some of you might not be aware of. You probably bought all kinds of ebooks and courses about making money online with affiliate marketing, and I bet most of them teach you to become an affiliate first before you create your own product for sale, am I right? Well, what I am about to tell you may shock you because to be honest you will make MUCH more money as an affiliate if you create your own product first. Huh?! What?! …Yes I said it :) I am not saying that you can’t make a decent amount of money with pure affiliate promotions. Hell I made a ton of money promoting CPA offers, and products from many different affiliate networks, but when you create your own product for sale things become much easier especially the part of driving targeted traffic. Let me explain in more detail When you are first starting out the most important thing is targeted traffic. You need to learn how to drive highly qualified targeted visitors to your affiliate offers or no money will be made. It’s actually not that hard because you can always buy traffic. The problem starts with converting that traffic into sales. There is going to be some learning curve before you figure out how to convert the traffic you are getting. You will need to do a lot of testing and it’s going to drive the costs high before you find which traffic sources produce best ROI for you. Performance review phrases comments/ free download examples Page 1
First, find out all the affiliate networks being used on the website and figure out which other networks have the same offers, so you can use these as backups. You may need to move if the offer with the current network goes down or starts capping you. If at all possible, ask yourself if the offers on this site are evergreen or a flash in the pan kind of offer. If you are buying a website, you will likely want to make sure the offers are going to be sticking around for the long term versus only a couple of months after you purchased the website.
Subject to the terms of this Agreement and the accrual of commissions as set forth in Section 8 above, commissions will be calculated according to the specified percentage or dollar amount set forth in the commission report in your Affiliate Console for each Qualified Purchase that accrues during the period for which such commission fee is being calculated.
If you've taken the time to build an email list, then you should use that opportunity to survey your subscribers. Consider asking them, specifically, what they're most interested. I recently did this and the answers actually surprised me. However, another thing the answers did was allow me to laser-focus my affiliate offers in the right direction. This is invaluable information and it's coming straight from your list.
Tagging a brand you are wearing is an endorsement of the brand and, just like any other endorsement, could require a disclosure if you have a relationship with that brand. Some influencers only tag the brands of their sponsors, some tag brands with which they don’t have relationships, and some do a bit of both. Followers might not know why you are tagging a dress and some might think you’re doing it just because you like the dress and want them to know.
People actively doing business in this fashion can earn anywhere between 0$ – 10,000$ – more $ each month, and the only difference between all of them is knowledge. Those who know more, read more, study more, naturally earn more; those who only rely on gut feel and destiny to get somewhere follow their own path. Our focus and objective today is to list and let you know about the best learning resources that will help you build an Amazon Affiliate business that will help you make money online from the comfort of your home, beach or someplace else. What you must remember though is that this isn’t going to be as easy, it will require hard work from your side and only those who endure a little bit of pain are the ones who gain. Image Source : Nick Youngson http://nyphotographic.com/
This Data Processing Addendum ("Addendum") sets out the terms that apply as between HubSpot and Marketing Affiliate when processing EEA personal data in connection with the Marketing Affiliate Program.  This Addendum forms part of the Marketing Affiliate Program Agreement. Capitalized terms used in this Addendum shall have the meanings given to them in the Marketing Affiliate Program Agreement (the "Agreement") unless otherwise defined in this Addendum.  
A browser extension is a plug-in that extends the functionality of a web browser. Some extensions are authored using web technologies such as HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Most modern web browsers have a whole slew of third-party extensions available for download. In recent years, there has been a constant rise in the number of malicious browser extensions flooding the web. Malicious browser extensions will often appear to be legitimate as they seem to originate from vendor websites and come with glowing customer reviews.[28] In the case of affiliate marketing, these malicious extensions are often used to redirect a user’s browser to send fake clicks to websites that are supposedly part of legitimate affiliate marketing programs. Typically, users are completely unaware this is happening other than their browser performance slowing down. Websites end up paying for fake traffic number, and users are unwitting participants in these ad schemes.
Hi Matt – you need to have an affiliate disclosure on your site (we do in the footer) but you don’t have to say that in all links. Before we published the updated version of this I actually contacted Amazon support about the links on images, and they confirmed it is ok to do. For the others dealing with anchor text, check out http://marketingwithsara.com/amazon/warning-to-all-affiliate-marketers
In order to track the source of traffic, the merchant provides the affiliate with a coded link to the merchant's website. The merchant may also place a cookie -- a small text file -- on the customer's computer when he clicks the affiliate's link. The length of time this cookie is valid may vary from 24 hours to the lifetime of the cookie. The longer the cookie length, the more chance the affiliate has of being paid for future sales to the same customer. However some users regularly delete all cookies from their computer.
I wholeheartedly agree with #2!! I never realized how much of an impact dirty carpets could have on the work place. My company recently switched to professionals who specialize in commercial dry carpet cleaning and it has made such an impact on the environment we work in. Definitely something to look into! They have some awesome information on their site. https://www.chemdrysantaclaritavalley.com/commercial-carpet-cleaning/
Amazon has already made similar adjustments in many overseas markets. In 2015, the company moved its European affiliate program to a category-based structure, and according to the affiliate management firm GeniusLink, the result was more of a subtle chill than a freeze-out. “There’s definitely some pain as a result of it,” says GeniusLink CEO Jesse Lakes, “but we haven’t had a single client who stopped doing business because of the new payout structure.”
Security:  Each party shall implement and maintain all appropriate technical and organizational measures to protect any copies of the Personal Data in their possession or control from (i) accidental or unlawful destruction, and (ii) loss, alteration, or unauthorized disclosure or access (a "Security Incident") and to preserve the security and confidentiality of such Personal Data. Each party shall notify the other party without undue delay on becoming aware of any breach of EU Data Protection Law/Applicable Data Protection Law.
This is how you turn visitors into buyers into raving fans. If anyone is serious about "making it" in affiliate marketing, or simply making any semblance of money online, they have to adhere to this single principle. The better you get at creating an emotional attachment during each stage of your funnel, the more likely you'll be to succeed and even to get rich through your efforts.
14) Modifications: We may modify any of the terms and conditions of this Agreement at any time. You will be notified by e-mail, using the e-mail address currently listed in your Affiliate Profile, and a change notice will be posted on our site. If the modifications are unacceptable to you, your only recourse is to terminate this Agreement. Your continued participation in this Affiliate Program after a change notice has been posted will constitute binding acceptance of the change.
LOVED this – thank you Chris. So glad I found it just as I was about to add a store to my blog. I think it would be a better idea to just start linking to Amazon in every recipe and post! (Right?) BTW – I’ve already shared this post on G+ and LinkedIn and sent it to a bunch of friends. I always wish peeps would TELL me when they share my stuff, so here I am telling you. 🙂
From time to time, we may run general special programs or promotions that may provide all or some Associates the opportunity to earn additional or alternative fees (“Special Program Fees”). For the avoidance of doubt (and notwithstanding any time period described in this section), Amazon reserves the right to discontinue or modify all or part of any special program or promotion at any time. Unless stated otherwise, all such special programs or promotions (even those which do not involve purchases of Products) are subject to disqualifying exclusions substantially similar to those identified in Section 2 of this Fee Statement, and any restriction under the Program Documents applicable to a Product purchase will also apply on a substantially similar basis as restrictions for special programs or promotions.
Sales and Technical Training. MA shall attend initial marketing, application, and technical training as required and provided by Company; provided, however, that Company shall not require MA to market or support Technology according to a marketing plan or system prescribed in substantial part by Company. The MA will however, be responsible to display and explain in detail the methods by which they plan to achieve the assigned quotas.
If you’re in the WordPress industry like I am (whether it be design, development, or SEO) I have accumulated quite the list of WordPress affiliate programs. I excluded those I found unsuccessful or pay too little to make a profit from, specifically ThemeForest, Creative Market, and low quality theme stores like Template Monster. Hosting pays well and I wrote a tutorial for SiteGround’s affiliate program and StudioPress themes which are my 2 highest paying affiliates. Those tutorials have tons of screenshots/social proof especially for SiteGround.

Once you’ve set up your account, do note that Amazon requires you to use product links and generate income from at least three of them within 180 days. If you fail to do so within that time, they will close your account. If you are able to satisfy that requirement, Amazon will review your account as well as your usage of affiliate links once the first sale is complete.


Many people enjoy working with Rakuten Marketing because of their user-friendly interface. It is said to be a great benefit for beginners who are looking to get the hang of affiliate marketing. This is even more helpful because you’re likely to be working with more than one brand. Rakuten Marketing keeps all the important information and any other records in one place. If your audience is more specific, it’s going to be much easier to sell your products through Rakuten Marketing. Niche markets prefer to buy from smaller companies to help the whole community thrive. It’s a great contender to consider if that’s your current audience.
However, if you’ve given these customers a reason to expect a benefit from providing their thoughts about your product, you should disclose that fact in your ads. For example, if customers are told in advance that their comments might be used in advertising, they might expect to receive a payment for a positive review, and that could influence what they say, even if you tell them that you want their honest opinion. In fact, even if you tell your customers that you aren’t going to pay them but that they might be featured in your advertising, that opportunity might be seen as having a value, so the fact that they knew this when they gave the review should be disclosed (e.g., “Customers were told in advance they might be featured in an ad.”).
Compliance with Applicable Laws.  You shall comply, and shall ensure that any third parties performing sales or referral activities on your behalf comply, with all applicable foreign and domestic laws (including without limitation export laws and laws applicable to sending of unsolicited email), governmental regulations, ordinances, and judicial administrative orders. You shall not engage in any deceptive, misleading, illegal or unethical marketing activities, or activities that otherwise may be detrimental to us, our customers, or to the public. Export laws and regulations of the United States and any other relevant local export laws and regulations may apply to the HubSpot Products. You will comply with the sanctions programs administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the US Department of the Treasury.  You will not directly or indirectly export, re-export, or transfer the HubSpot Products to prohibited countries or individuals or permit use of the HubSpot Products by prohibited countries or individuals.

3.2. Merchant.com reserves the right to terminate this Agreement and your participation in the Merchant.com Affiliate Program immediately and without notice to you should you commit fraud in your use of the Merchant.com Affiliate Program or should you abuse this program in any way. If such fraud or abuse is detected, Merchant.com shall not be liable to you for any commissions for such fraudulent sales.


Still, as Amazon shifts its attention to new ventures in streaming and personal assistant hardware, many see it as an ominous sign for the affiliate program. “Amazon has done such a great job taking all their profit and dumping it back in to their business. And investors are now asking Amazon to show a profit,” says Lakes. “I’m not surprised that they’re whittling a few percent here and there.”
In reviewing your website, we noticed that the URL listed on your application is a social network website. However, your site is not an approved social network or established with enough unique content and followers yet. At this time, we are unable to approve your application and have closed the account under which you had been temporarily approved.
Sales and Technical Training. MA shall attend initial marketing, application, and technical training as required and provided by Company; provided, however, that Company shall not require MA to market or support Technology according to a marketing plan or system prescribed in substantial part by Company. The MA will however, be responsible to display and explain in detail the methods by which they plan to achieve the assigned quotas.
There’s no need to be intimidated by the cons noted above. Every affiliate program comes with them as does any working relationship you enter into with a well-known brand. Think of Amazon like Google: their top priority is keeping customers happy. Without their continued satisfaction, they wouldn’t be in business and you wouldn’t have an affiliate program to take advantage of, so they need to ensure you don’t abuse the terms of use.
8.1. You are free to promote your own web sites, but naturally any promotion that mentions Merchant.com could be perceived by the public or the press as a joint effort. You should know that certain forms of advertising are always prohibited by Merchant.com. For example, advertising commonly referred to as "spamming" is unacceptable to us and could cause damage to our name. Other generally prohibited forms of advertising include the use of unsolicited commercial email (UCE), postings to non-commercial newsgroups and cross-posting to multiple newsgroups at once. In addition, you may not advertise in any way that effectively conceals or misrepresents your identity, your domain name, or your return email address. You may use mailings to customers to promote Merchant.com so long as the recipient is already a customer or subscriber of your services or web site, and recipients have the option to remove themselves from future mailings. Also, you may post to newsgroups to promote Merchant.com so long as the news group specifically welcomes commercial messages. At all times, you must clearly represent yourself and your web sites as independent from Merchant.com. If it comes to our attention that you are spamming, we will consider that cause for immediate termination of this Agreement and your participation in the Merchant.com Affiliate Program. Any pending balances owed to you will not be paid if your account is terminated due to such unacceptable advertising or solicitation.
You may add or delete Products (and related Special Links) from your Site at any time without our approval. Special Links must link to Products (as defined in the Products Statement). When linking to pages with Product lists you must have additional original content on your Site that is relevant to the Special Link. Product lists include search results, events (e.g. Prime Day), or a department homepage (e.g. grocery).
He also started attending the three-times-a-year Affiliate Summit marketing conference and other trade shows. “You’d be surprised at how much of a relationship business this is,” he said. “There are thousands upon thousands of affiliates out there, but you come to realize that a lot of the good ones all seem to know each other and there’s as much suspicion of merchants cheating affiliates out of commissions as the other way around.”
Coupon publishers promote your company by posting discounts and coupon codes for customers to find and apply to their online orders. To determine the best offers for your business, we will conduct an in-depth competitive analysis to find out what deals and discounts your top competitors are providing to ensure that you always remain competitive within the affiliate channel.
So, now that you know everything there is to know about how to add Amazon affiliate links to WordPress, what will you do with this information? Just save a little money on Amazon? Will you start out small and embed promotional product links into your blog content? Will you be adventurous and launch your own Amazon affiliate store? Or are you concerned about the use of too many affiliate links affecting site speed?
It’s a great way to make passive income. Of course, when I say “passive”, this doesn’t account for the time needed to spend building or maintaining your WordPress site. However, in terms of having to promote these affiliate links, you can put in as much or as little work as you want to drive traffic to them. This obviously makes this a great option for a passive income stream if you’re not in the business of e-commerce.
The FTC isn’t mandating the specific wording of disclosures. However, the same general principle – that people get the information they need to evaluate sponsored statements – applies across the board, regardless of the advertising medium. The words “Sponsored” and “Promotion” use only 9 characters. “Paid ad” only uses 7 characters. Starting a tweet with “Ad:” or “#ad” – which takes only 3 characters – would likely be effective.
There is no warranty or guarantee of any kind with respect to the Program Operator system as far as reliability, stability, quality or dependability. This means that the Program Operator, or its associates is not responsible for any loss or damage incurred directly or indirectly due to the use of the Program Operator website, products, services, or any other facet of the system. This shall include, but is not limited to, any system malfunction, period of being inoperative or unavailable, loss of data or discontinuation of service, other inconveniences.
1) The Parties: This Ecommerce Affiliate Agreement (the “Agreement”), made and entered by and between GenealogyBank.com, (referred to henceforth as "GenealogyBank.com," “GenealogyBank”, “us” or "we") with its principal place of business at 5801 Pelican Bay Boulevard, Suite 600, Naples, FL 34108, and you, the affiliate (referred to henceforth as "you" or "Affiliate"), contains the complete terms and conditions that apply to your participation in the GenealogyBank.com Affiliate Program (the "Affiliate Program" or "Program"). Your participation in the Affiliate Program is non-exclusive as there are and will be other Affiliates.

Armed with this knowledge you’d think that people would spend more time testing their theme or website layout to determine the optimal way to make money from their website right? Well, this is precisely why once you get your website to start earning ~$1,000 per month you should consider testing out a new theme. It doesn’t make sense to start testing theme changes or try moving to a new theme until you are making at least ~$1,000 per month.

You may add or delete Products (and related Special Links) from your Site at any time without our approval. Special Links must link to Products (as defined in the Products Statement). When linking to pages with Product lists you must have additional original content on your Site that is relevant to the Special Link. Product lists include search results, events (e.g. Prime Day), or a department homepage (e.g. grocery).
SEO: getting consistent traffic by writing AWESOME content about your keywords (there’s a phrase “length is strength” in SEO and this paid off big time for me). Maybe you’re doing videos or an eCourse, but I found blog posts WAY easier to update which means less maintenance. The biggest factor by FAR was the time I spent meticulously creating my tutorials… which eventually resulted in a sudden 3x increase in SEO traffic
From time to time, we may run general special programs or promotions that may provide all or some Associates the opportunity to earn additional or alternative fees (“Special Program Fees”). For the avoidance of doubt (and notwithstanding any time period described in this section), Amazon reserves the right to discontinue or modify all or part of any special program or promotion at any time. Unless stated otherwise, all such special programs or promotions (even those which do not involve purchases of Products) are subject to disqualifying exclusions substantially similar to those identified in Section 2 of this Fee Statement, and any restriction under the Program Documents applicable to a Product purchase will also apply on a substantially similar basis as restrictions for special programs or promotions.
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