(d) Indemnification. WE WILL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY MATTER DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY RELATING TO THE CREATION, MAINTENANCE, OR OPERATION OF THE INFLUENCER PAGE, AND YOU AGREE TO DEFEND, INDEMNIFY, AND HOLD US, OUR AFFILIATES AND LICENSORS, AND OUR AND THEIR RESPECTIVE EMPLOYEES, OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, AND REPRESENTATIVES, HARMLESS FROM AND AGAINST ALL CLAIMS, DAMAGES, LOSSES, LIABILITIES, COSTS, AND EXPENSES (INCLUDING ATTORNEYS’ FEES) RELATING TO ANY CONTENT WITHIN THE INFLUENCER PAGE PROVIDED BY YOU.

You will not be eligible to receive any Standard Program Fees or Special Program Fees for any month if we determine that your Site is primarily promoting free Kindle eBooks and during that month (i) 20,000 or more free Kindle eBooks are ordered and downloaded during Sessions attributed to your Special Links, and (ii) at least 80% of all Kindle eBooks ordered and downloaded during Sessions attributed to your Special Links are free Kindle eBooks.
Spam is the biggest threat to organic search engines, whose goal is to provide quality search results for keywords or phrases entered by their users. Google's PageRank algorithm update ("BigDaddy") in February 2006—the final stage of Google's major update ("Jagger") that began in mid-summer 2005—specifically targeted spamdexing with great success. This update thus enabled Google to remove a large amount of mostly computer-generated duplicate content from its index.[29]
You must use both a unique public key/private key pair (each key pair, an “Account Identifier”) and an Associates tag parameter (which can be either the Associate ID issued to you under the Amazon Associates Program or a related Associates Program tracking ID) to identify your account and make calls to PA API. You may obtain your Account Identifiers through PA API account creation process.

I could have promoted WP Engine (hosting company) for $200/sale with no tier program to climb – sounds pretty good right? But when I checked ShareASale I saw their reversal rates were 24%! Just to give you an idea SiteGround’s reversals are less than 10%. WP Engine starts at $29/month while SiteGround’s is $3.95/month, plus SiteGround has a better reputation. I had to climb a tier program to get SiteGround’s $150/sale, but long-term my research paid off.


Affiliate marketing has grown quickly since its inception. The e-commerce website, viewed as a marketing toy in the early days of the Internet, became an integrated part of the overall business plan and in some cases grew to a bigger business than the existing offline business. According to one report, the total sales amount generated through affiliate networks in 2006 was £2.16 billion in the United Kingdom alone. The estimates were £1.35 billion in sales in 2005.[15] MarketingSherpa's research team estimated that, in 2006, affiliates worldwide earned US$6.5 billion in bounty and commissions from a variety of sources in retail, personal finance, gaming and gambling, travel, telecom, education, publishing, and forms of lead generation other than contextual advertising programs.[16]
However, an advertiser buying fake “likes” is very different from an advertiser offering incentives for “likes” from actual consumers. If “likes” are from non-existent people or people who have no experience using the product or service, they are clearly deceptive, and both the purchaser and the seller of the fake “likes” could face enforcement action.
You have a financial connection to the company that hired you and that relationship exists whether or not you are being paid for a particular tweet. If you are endorsing the conference in your tweets, your audience has a right to know about your relationship. That said, some of your tweets responding to questions about the event might not be endorsements, because they aren’t communicating your opinions about the conference (for example, if someone just asks you for a link to the conference agenda).
8. The Holidays are Boom Time – While I’m really happy with the way my Amazon Affiliate income is growing ($2500 a month is so far beyond what I’d ever expected from it in the early days) it’s worth noting that things really fire up in the lead up to Christmas and the holiday season. Over the last few years I’ve noticed significant jumps in Amazon earnings in December (as much as 100%). The key is to plan ahead (make sure your links are all up to date a couple of months out) and run a few Christmas specific posts in the lead up to the Holiday rush (start to prepare as early as October/November).
You shall not create, publish, transmit or distribute, under any circumstances, any bulk email messages (also known as "SPAM") without prior written consent from FatCow, to be granted or denied in FatCow’s sole discretion, in each instance. Additionally, you may only send emails containing a FatCow affiliate link and or a message regarding FatCow or FatCow's Affiliate Program to people who have previously consented to receiving such communications from you. Your failure to abide by this Section 14, the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, our Anti-Spam Policy, and all applicable laws relating to email communications, in any manner, will be deemed a material breach of this Agreement by you and will result in the forfeiture by you of any and all rights you may have to any commissions and the termination of your participation in the Affiliate Program. Further, if your account has excessive clicks in a very short period of time as determined by FatCow in its sole discretion, the Affiliate relationship may be terminated.

The one thing to be aware of with WordPress Amazon affiliate plugins is that you don’t want to use one that offers link cloaking. This is a method used to protect affiliates from a threat known as affiliate link hijacking. However, Amazon expressly forbids the cloaking of their links, so you’ll want to avoid plugins that do that or always be sure to disable that functionality if they give you the option.


You should tell the participants in your network that if they endorse products they have received through your program, they should make it clear they got them for free. Advise your clients – the advertisers – that if they provide free samples directly to your members, they should remind them of the importance of disclosing the relationship when they talk about those products. Put a program in place to check periodically whether your members are making those disclosures, and to deal with anyone who isn’t complying.
He also started attending the three-times-a-year Affiliate Summit marketing conference and other trade shows. “You’d be surprised at how much of a relationship business this is,” he said. “There are thousands upon thousands of affiliates out there, but you come to realize that a lot of the good ones all seem to know each other and there’s as much suspicion of merchants cheating affiliates out of commissions as the other way around.”

Check out AffiliateTip.com, a popular site about affiliate marketing run by industry guru Shawn Collins. The right rail of his site features a “Blogroll” that contains affiliate links to a number of third party sites. While some of these sites have blogs, the links generally lead (through an affiliate link tracker) to landing pages where visitors can sign up for a product:
Great advice here. The typical idea of writing reviews of bicycle pedals and expecting someone to follow your link in order to buy a pair is dead. Now if you are actually a cyclists, and you know something about all the different types of pedals, and why different types solve different cycling problems, then hey, welcome to the world of providing useful content.
No. A hyperlink like that isn’t likely to be sufficient. It does not convey the importance, nature, and relevance of the information to which it leads and it is likely that many consumers will not click on it and therefore will miss necessary disclosures. The disclosures we are talking about are brief and there is no space-related reason to use a hyperlink to provide access to them.
Cost per click was more common in the early days of affiliate marketing but has diminished in use over time due to click fraud issues very similar to the click fraud issues modern search engines are facing today. Contextual advertising programs are not considered in the statistic pertaining to the diminished use of cost per click, as it is uncertain if contextual advertising can be considered affiliate marketing.

Subject to the terms of this Agreement and the accrual of commissions as set forth in Section 8 above, commissions will be calculated according to the specified percentage or dollar amount set forth in the commission report in your Affiliate Console for each Qualified Purchase that accrues during the period for which such commission fee is being calculated.

However, if you’re running an e-commerce site, conducting product testing and reviews, or offer Amazon product coupons, then you probably will want to use a WordPress Amazon affiliate theme. To be clear, these themes aren’t usually made specifically for Amazon affiliates. Instead, what you’ll want to look for are e-commerce or multi-purpose WordPress themes that are:
Just like a real-world funnel, a sales funnel acts similarly. It funnels down visitors through several stages before they become buyers. The way Henry explains it, if you're not creating an emotional attachment during each stage of that funnel, then you're largely wasting your time. It has to start from the very beginning, and it has to carry out all the way to beyond the purchase.
Commissions will accrue and only become payable once you (i) provide all relevant tax and address documentation pursuant to Section 9 below and (ii) reach the Commission Threshold of $50 based on the commission rates stated on the FatCow website, solely as applied to Qualified Purchases which occurred within ninety (90) days of the end of the calendar month in which the first of such Qualified Purchases occurred. For example, if you provide sign-ups which result in one Qualified Purchase on January 1st and a second sign-up which leads to a Qualified Purchase on August 10th, and you provide all necessary tax documentation on August 10th, no commission would accrue because the second Qualified Purchase occurred more than one hundred and eighty (180) days after the end of January when the first Qualified Purchase occurred. However, if you subsequently provide a sign up which leads to another Qualified Purchase on September 5th of the same year, then commissions would accrue on the latter two Qualified Purchases (i.e., the Qualified Purchases from August and September of the same year). All Qualified Purchases still eligible to result in commissions under this Section 8 must remain active and in good standing pursuant to the terms of this Agreement in order to remain eligible for accrual of a commission. Once a commission has accrued under this Section 8, the amount of such commission (the “Commission Fee”) shall be due and payable to you under the terms of Section 9. FatCow reserves the right to change the Commission Threshold by amending this Agreement and will notify you for any such amendment pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

Newbies and intermediate affiliate marketers tend to be too detail oriented. They spend countless hours testing new offers, creating content and looking for new traffic sources. More experienced marketers understand importance of looking at the bigger picture. They must observe trends to anticipate new changes, such as the types of offers that will be profitable in the future and which traffic sources will be most profitable in the future.
Amazon will not pay you unless your affiliate sales reach a threshold of $10 if you choose to be paid by direct bank deposit or Amazon gift card, or $100 if you want to be paid by check. If you fail to reach the threshold, your affiliate balance is carried over to the next month and added to the sales you make then. Amazon pays affiliate sales at net 60 days, so, for example, sales that reach the threshold at the end of January will be paid in late March.
Referred Customers who buy FatCow Products and Services through our affiliate network are deemed to be FatCow Customers. FatCow’s Terms and Conditions, rules, policies, and operating procedures will apply to such customers. We may change our policies, pricing, and operating procedures at any time. For example, FatCow determines the prices to be charged for FatCow Products and Services sold through the affiliate network in accordance with our own pricing policies. Prices and availability of FatCow Products and Services may vary from time to time, from affiliate to affiliate, and from region to region. Because price changes may affect products that you have listed on your Affiliate Site, you may or may not be able to include price information in your product descriptions. We will use commercially reasonable efforts to present accurate information on our website, but we cannot guarantee the availability or price of any particular FatCow Product or Service.
a) If any part of this agreement or the Terms and Condition is declared void, this agreement and the Terms and Conditions shall, to the maximum practicable extent, be construed without reference to that part. No term or provision of the Agreement shall be waived unless in writing and signed by the party waiving the provision, and any waiver shall apply only to the specific event or situation which it describes and shall not be continuing. No affiliate may assign or sublicense this agreement without the Program Operator’s prior written consent.
Freelancer – refer people to developers, designers, and other freelancers you’ve worked with and make 100% of Freelancer’s project commission for the first 90 days. I get a lot of people requesting WordPress speed optimization services… so I refer them to my developers with a freelancer affiliate link and make $125/month in passive income. You can’t use affiliate links to link to specific freelancer profiles, so I direct people to the homepage via affiliate link and give people my developer’s usernames.
Companies online will give you a commission if you refer a customer to them. An easy example would be with Amazon. Amazon has an affiliate program called Amazon Associates. It’s free to join and takes just a couple minutes to set up. From there you can search every product that is on Amazon and get your personal referral link. Let’s say your friend mentioned they wanted a new TV. You could send them your referral link for a TV on Amazon. Your friend buys the TV for $500, and Amazon gives you 6% of that sale. That means you made $30 without doing anything. Pretty cool, huh?
Additionally, you must either include the following disclaimer adjacent to the pricing or availability information or provide it via a hyperlink, pop-up box, scripted pop-up, or other similar method: "Product prices and availability are accurate as of the date/time indicated and are subject to change. Any price and availability information displayed on [relevant Amazon Site(s), as applicable] at the time of purchase will apply to the purchase of this product." In the above examples, "Details" and "More info" would provide a method for the end user to read the disclaimer.
Know English, can earn. All you need to know is how to know to write for this one (or how to hire a writer). It is your holistic guide to creating a white hat (Google Friendly) affiliate sites that draw organic (free) traffic from Google Search and convert that into paying customers on Amazon via your content marketing website. 17.5 hours of unadulterated video content, lifetime access and even a certificate of completion. At a rating of 4.8 out of 5, it is a no brainer when it comes to deciding whether this is good or bad for you. Created by SEO Academy Leaders in SEO Education, this will get your Amazon Affiliate website SEO on the right track.
Assignment. You will not assign or transfer this Agreement, including any assignment or transfer by reason of merger, reorganization, sale of all or substantially all of its assets, change of control or operation of law, without our prior written consent. We may assign this Agreement to any affiliate or in the event of merger, reorganization, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, change of control or operation of law.
I want to say thank you for taking the time to focus on useful content going into future years, as opposed to regurgitating something you read out of a hard cover marketing book from 1991. The original reason I came here however, was looking for tips / information on a general structure for paying taxes reliably on affiliate earnings in addition to disclaimer examples. Ive searched through different key word combinations and due to financial diversity on a national scale I can understand why this information is scarce. That being said, as long as a solid disclaimer is made about the information being a rough guideline etc. I think it would be extremely useful as most start up affiliates don’t know a thing about VAT, or how to separate their take home earnings from the tax they owe. I am currently residing in Alberta, Canada for your reference, but any information or a lead you could give me would be most helpful.
Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives a commission. The advertiser must convert that visitor first. It is in the best interest of the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The risk and loss are shared between the affiliate and the advertiser.
I’ve been using Amazon’s affiliate program for a little over two years and during that time I’ve had a lot of success with it. In fact, this income source was the second largest chunk of my total $150k+ 2010 income. If I hadn’t sold one of my larger Amazon focused sites last year for six figures this income source would have easily eclipsed $100,000 by now.
i. You will use Product Advertising Content only in a lawful manner in accordance with and within the express scope of the terms of this License. You will not use PA API, Data Feeds, or Product Advertising Content with any site or application, or in any other manner, that does not have the principal purpose of advertising and marketing an Amazon Site and driving sales of products and services on an Amazon Site.

5. If you are familiar with Internet marketing at all you know that what worked three months ago may not work today. Stay on top of the trends. Seek knowledge, start by learning something new about affiliate marketing daily. For example remember those marketing tools called "banner" that use to drive sales at an astronomical rate a few years ago? Well those banners developed a term called "banner blindness." That means most online viewers will not click on banners even if they do pertain to what they are looking for. To be a "super" affiliate you must always spend time reading, learning, and embracing the changes in Internet marketing. 6. Don't Give Up It's hard to do, and most of the time those dabbling in affiliate marketing give up way too soon. Monitor your statistics, watch to see what is working and what is not. Make changes when necessary. Do one thing daily to promote your storehouse and be patient. Before you know it you will start getting payments. Remember that it will not happen overnight. Encompass and develop the persistence, patience, and knowledge. Then follow the tactics I've mentioned above and you are on your way to becoming a "super" affiliate. Performance review phrases comments/ free download examples Page 5
20.2 Affiliate may not initiate or assist in the transmission of commercial e-mail using an e-mail address: (1) that was collected through automated means, from a third party website in violation of that third party's posted privacy policy, or (2) that was generated through automated means by combining names, letters or numbers into numerous permutations. Affiliate may not conduct fraudulent activities related to electronic mail, including but not limited to the material falsification of header or transmission information, the unauthorized use of someone else's computer to send bulk commercial e-mail, and the registration of an e-mail account that materially falsifies the identity of the actual registrant.
Unlike an Amazon affiliate business model, affiliate marketing tends to be more lucrative in terms of the profit margins you can earn per sale. This makes paid advertising easily profitable, so it can be a valid choice to grow your website. Many affiliate marketers focus almost 100% on paid traffic. They create a landing page, a sales letter, and off they go with Facebook ads or Google Adword campaigns.
This Agreement contains the entire agreement between the parties, and no representations, statements or inducements, oral or written, not contained herein, shall be binding upon the parties. Company expressly disclaims the making of, and MA acknowledges that it has not received a warranty or guaranty, express or implied, as to the potential volume, profits or success of the business venture contemplated by this Agreement.
You get to hand-pick what you promote. Unlike display ad systems that typically choose which brands serve ads on your WordPress site, you have total control over this with Amazon affiliate links. You’ll never have to worry about a competitor’s link showing up on your site and the link will always be relevant to the content that it appears within or beside--which will improve its chances of getting clicked.
In 1994, Tobin launched a beta version of PC Flowers & Gifts on the Internet in cooperation with IBM, who owned half of Prodigy.[6] By 1995 PC Flowers & Gifts had launched a commercial version of the website and had 2,600 affiliate marketing partners on the World Wide Web. Tobin applied for a patent on tracking and affiliate marketing on January 22, 1996, and was issued U.S. Patent number 6,141,666 on Oct 31, 2000. Tobin also received Japanese Patent number 4021941 on Oct 5, 2007, and U.S. Patent number 7,505,913 on Mar 17, 2009, for affiliate marketing and tracking.[7] In July 1998 PC Flowers and Gifts merged with Fingerhut and Federated Department Stores.[8]

Would like begin by pointing out the super ratings. Great feedback to the course all over and is a brilliant no nonsense course. Among other things that it teaches, you will learn where to find hosting for $5 or less, how to install WordPress, choosing correct theme for your e-store, changing theme and design of your store to desired look & feel and of course goes in depth to teach and train you on the part of developing your Amazon Affiliate Business. Whether or not you no coding, you can take this course up and that is the beauty of it.


Some people might be inclined to leave a positive review in an effort to earn more money for charity. The overarching principle remains: If readers of the reviews would evaluate them differently knowing that they were motivated in part by charitable donations, there should be a disclosure. Therefore, it might be better to err on the side of caution and disclose that donations are made to charity in exchange for reviews.
Termination for Cause.  We may terminate this Agreement: (i) upon thirty (30) days’ notice to you of a material breach if such breach remains uncured at the expiration of such period, (ii) upon fifteen (15) days notice to you of non-payment of any amount due to us if such amount remains unpaid at the expiration of such period, (iii) immediately, if you become the subject of a petition in bankruptcy or any other proceeding relating to insolvency, receivership, liquidation or assignment for the benefit of creditors, (iv) immediately, if you breach the terms applicable to your subscription with us (if you have one), including if you default on your payment obligations to us or our affiliate, or (v) immediately, if we determine that you are acting, or have acted, in a way that has or may negatively reflect on or affect us, our prospects, or our customers.

If you expect this extension to replace your trusty tablepress plugin – you are in no luck, unless you want to only rely on the parameters that Amazon gives you for your comparison table such as “quantity”, “brand”, “price”… Ratings are missing. There doesn’t seem to be a way to create your own column, everything is set in stone. If you pull “features”, you might be in danger of duplicate content.
EPC stands for Earnings Per Click. It is the estimated amount of money a marketer can expect to earn from a 100 clicks to their affiliate offer. This is a great piece of knowledge. You should be on the lookout for affiliate offers with the best EPCs. In addition to finding new offers, look at other affiliate networks that are doing the same offers that your website is doing.
Requests for direct comment from Gawker Media surrounding their use of and investment into affiliate marketing went unanswered. But investing into custom platforms and granular data collection doesn’t seem like something a publisher the size of Gawker Media would be doing unless it were a central part of their current and future overall monetization strategy.
That’s just a general understanding of what affiliate marketing is, but let’s see how we can build a legitimate business with it. This business model can be fully automated and generate us anywhere to a couple of hundred dollars a month, to upwards of half a million a month. And yes, some people are millionaires from this and only spend a couple of hours a week managing everything. It’s basically passive income.

Many publishers present affiliate links in the same way others would run display ads on their site. Below is a screenshot from SugarRae.com, a popular affiliate marketing blog. Notice that the right rail is labeled as “Advertisement” and includes two ads (one for Raven and the other for Genesis). These look like banner ads, but they’re actually affiliate links–in the form of an image, not text. To most viewers, there’s very little distinction between a banner ad and an affiliate link here, but the compensation structure of course matters to the affiliate and the publisher.
Commission and Payment. Requirements for Payment; Forfeiture. In order to receive payment under this Agreement, you must have: (i) agreed to the terms of this Agreement (generally completed through the Affiliate Tool); (ii) completed all steps necessary to create your account in the Affiliate Tool in accordance with our directions, (iii) have a valid and up-to-date paypal account and updated the Affiliate Tool with such account (iv) completed any and all required tax documentation in order for HubSpot to process any payments that may be owed to you.
Smart Passive Income proves that being an authority in your niche is important. Pat Flynn is the creator of the site, and affiliate marketing and other forms of online income are not only where his expertise lies, but it’s also what he sells. Flynn recommends hosting, blogging tools, helpful books, and more resources to guide others toward making their own passive income with his expertise.
I have recently signed up for some other affiliate programs and mixed those links in with my Amazon links. Readers clearly prefer Amazon, and I can understand why. I know that if I have the choice when I buy something, I almost always go with Amazon. And when I’m shopping for almost anything, I always check to see if I can get it at Amazon for less. Don’t most Americans? So I’m not giving up on Amazon.
If you provide us with suggestions, reviews, modifications, data, images, text, or other information relating to any Program Content or in connection with your participation in the Associates Program, or if you modify any Program Content in any way (collectively, “Your Submission”), you hereby irrevocably assign to us all right, title, and interest in and to Your Submission and grant us (even if you have designated Your Submission as confidential) a perpetual, paid-up royalty-free, nonexclusive, worldwide, irrevocable, freely transferable right and license for the maximum duration of protection available under applicable law to: (a) use, reproduce, perform, display, and distribute Your Submission in any manner; (b) adapt, modify, re-format, and create derivative works of Your Submission for any purpose; (c) use and publish your name in the form of a credit in conjunction with Your Submission (however, we will not have any obligation to do so); and (d) sublicense the foregoing rights to any other person or entity. Additionally, you hereby warrant that: (y) Your Submission is your original work, or you obtained Your Submission in a lawful manner and (z) our and our sublicensees’ exercise of rights under the license above will not violate any person’s or entity’s rights, including any copyright rights. You agree to provide us such assistance as we may require to document, perfect, or maintain our rights in and to Your Submission.
Applicable Law. This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, without regard to the conflict of laws provisions thereof. In the event either of us initiates an action in connection with this Agreement or any other dispute between the parties, the exclusive venue and jurisdiction of such action shall be in the state and federal courts in Boston, Massachusetts.

I was following someone else’s guide and they said you should have a static front page, but I feel like I would be getting more views and more clicks if I had the opposite ie; my latest blogs on the homepage. I also checked my stats and when I link to an article/review people stay longer. When I link to the home page they don’t stay as long AND a higher bounce rate. My bounce rate for the homepage is literally 3,000 in the past month. They hit that homepage and stay for around 7 minutes which means most are probably reading the static page, but then they just… leave.


You will register for and be assigned a unique URL associated with an Associate ID for your participation in the Local Associates Program. You will not use any alternative URL or Associate IDs in connection with the Local Associates Program or use the assigned URL or Associate ID for any other purpose. For purposes of this Local Associates Policy, your unique URL will be considered a Special Link as defined in the Associates Program Operating Agreement.

For Dan Henry, the salient dream of living life and succeeding by marketing products or services as an affiliate wasn't just alive, it was lucid. Still, dream as he might, in 2011 Henry was still just a college dropout delivering pizzas door-to-door just to make a living. However, compelled by a nascent desire to live according to own terms, he knew that there was more to life than existing paycheck-to-paycheck.
“Other Products” means those products and services that we offer, which are not included in the Subscription Service (as detailed below); and, for the purposes of this Agreement, Other Products include all of our marketing software, legacy sales and marketing products, and any implementation, customization, training, consulting, additional support or other professional services, or fees for third-party products or services.
We will evaluate your application in good faith and will notify you of your acceptance or rejection in a timely manner. We may reject your application if we determine (in our sole discretion) that your website is not suitable for the Affiliate Program for any reason, including, but not limited to, its inclusion of content that is, in our opinion, unlawful or otherwise violates our Acceptable Use Policy.
Copyrights and Trademarks. MA shall protect copyrights, tradenames, trademarks, service marks, trade secrets and other confidential proprietary rights and information of Company and its affiliates and report promptly any infringements or suspected infringements of which MA becomes aware and to cooperate fully with Company in its efforts to protect its copyrights, tradenames, trademarks, service marks, trade secrets and other confidential proprietary rights and information.

11.1. No Agency. Each party shall act as an independent contractor and shall have no authority to obligate or bind the other in any respect, and nothing in this Agreement (including any Offer) shall create any partnership, joint ventures, agency, franchise, sales representative or employment relationship between the parties. Neither party shall make any statement, whether on their sites or otherwise, that reasonably would contradict anything in the paragraph.
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